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Before , women's hockey had been dominated by Canada. Canadian teams had won every World Championship up to that point; however, by , the American team had improved and was evenly matched with Canada.
In thirteen games played between the two teams in , Canada won seven and the United States won six. Canada and the United States dominated the round-robin portion.
In their head-to-head match, the United States overcame a 4—1 deficit to win 7—4. Finland defeated China 4—1 to win the bronze medal. For the Winter Olympics , the number of teams was increased to eight with Russia , Germany and Kazakhstan qualifying for the first time.
In , the American team was upset in the semi-final game, by Sweden 2—3 SO, marking the first time that it had lost to an opponent other than Canada.
In , eight teams participated, including Slovakia for the first time. The Finnish team won the bronze medal over Sweden 3—2 OT, their first since With the win, Canadians Hayley Wickenheiser , Jayna Hefford and Caroline Ouellette became the first athletes to win four ice hockey gold medals.
They also joined Soviet biathlete Alexander Tikhonov and German speedskater Claudia Pechstein as the only athletes to win gold medals in four straight Winter Olympics.
In , the United States defeated Canada for the gold medal in a shootout, winning 3—2. The Americans' winning the gold medal game marks the first time in 20 years that the United States took home a gold medal in women's hockey.
They previously won in in Nagano, Japan , which was also against Canada. The edition will be played with ten teams.
Since , 12 teams have participated in the men's tournament, except in and , when the number was raised to The number of teams has ranged from 4 in to 16 in The top two teams from the preliminary round Belarus and Kazakhstan joined the "Big Six" in the finals.
A similar system was used in Twelve spots were made available for teams. Teams ranked 19th through 30th played in a first qualification round in November The top three teams from the round advanced to the second qualification round, joined by teams ranked 10th through 18th.
The top three teams from this round advanced to the Olympic tournament. The women's tournament uses a similar qualification format.
Teams ranked 13th and below were divided into two groups for a first qualification round in September The two group winners advanced to the second qualification round, where the teams ranked seventh through twelfth joined them.
The IIHF lists the following requirements for a player to be eligible to play in international tournaments: If a player who has never played in an IIHF competition changes their citizenship, they must participate in national competitions in their new country for at least two consecutive years and have an international transfer card ITC.
A player can only do this once. Pierre de Coubertin , founder of the IOC, was influenced by the ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public schools.
Near the end of the s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association CAHA felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams.
Avery Brundage , president of the IOC from to , was opposed to the idea of amateur and professional players competing together.
Before the Winter Olympics, a dispute formed over what made a player a professional. The IOC had adopted a rule that made any player who had signed an NHL contract but played less than ten games in the league eligible.
However, the United States Olympic Committee maintained that any player contracted with an NHL team was a professional and therefore not eligible to play.
Players who had played in other professional leagues—such as the World Hockey Association —were allowed to play.
The NHL decided not to allow all players to participate in , , and because the Winter Olympics typically occur in February, during the league's regular season.
To allow participation, the NHL would have been forced to take a break in its schedule. He hoped that NHL participation would "get exposure like the world has never seen for hockey".
Bettman "floated a concept of moving hockey to the Summer Games", but this was rejected because of the Olympic Charter.
The —05 NHL season was locked out and eventually cancelled because of a labour dispute between the league and its players.
In January , Bettman commented that he was hesitant to allow league participation in the Olympics because he did not like the idea of stopping play mid-season after the cancellation of the previous season.
Philadelphia Flyers owner Ed Snider commented that "I'm a believer in the Olympics and I think it's good for the NHL to participate, having said that, the people who participate should be the ones who are absolutely healthy.
Bettman said that several format changes were being discussed so that the tournament would be "a little easier for everybody". As part of the deal, the NHL will go on break for 17 days during the Olympics and will send 13 on-ice officials to help with the Games.
At an October press conference, then-NHLPA executive director Paul Kelly stated that the players want to return to the Olympics and would try to include the ability in the next agreement.
All the countries replied to the IIHF that they are not willing to pay for the insurance or the travel or any of the other expenses that are related to having the NHL players participate in Pyeongchang.
In that statement, the NHL said that it had been open to hearing from the IOC, the IIHF, and the players' association on ways to make Olympic participation more attractive to team owners, but no meaningful dialogue on that matter had materialized.
As to reasons the Board of Governors might be interested in re-evaluating their strongly held views on the subject, the NHLPA "confirmed that it has no interest or intention of engaging in any discussion that might make Olympic participation more attractive to the Clubs", and that it would not schedule a break for the Olympics in the —18 season.
We can tick that off the list. We will have to look ahead to China and the Beijing winter Games because there is an interest of the league and we have noted that.
But logistically it is practically impossible for Pyeongchang. That train has left the station", he said.
Alexander Ovechkin, captain of the Washington Capitals: At the first tournament in , there were many differences from the modern game: The tournaments follow the rules used by the IIHF.
Before that, body-checking was only allowed in the defending zone in international hockey. Before then, the neutral zone trap had slowed the game down and reduced scoring.
In the NHL, a linesman stops play due to icing if a defending player other than the goaltender is not behind an attacking player in the race to the end-zone faceoff dots in his defensive zone,  in contrast to the IIHF rules in which play is stopped the moment the puck crosses the goal line.
The NHL calls five-minute major penalties for more dangerous infractions of the rules, such as fighting, in addition to the minor and double minor penalties called in IIHF games.
Some were already used by the IIHF, such as the shootout and the two-line pass. Each team is allowed to have between 15 and 20 skaters forwards and defencemen and two or three goaltenders, all of whom must be citizens of the nation they play for.
One of the conditions of the NHL's participation in the Olympics is to include regular NHL referees and linesmen in the tournament, despite the fact that they are American or Canadian, and thus gives the perception of American or Canadian bias in the officiating.
The IIHF maintains a Registered Testing Pool, a list of top players who are subjected to random in-competition and out-of-competition drug tests.
When a player tests positive, the rest of their team is subjected to testing; another positive test can result in a disqualification of the entire team.
American Bryan Berard , who had competed in the Winter Olympics, tested positive for Norandrosterone. Results of the Russian women's team at the Winter Olympics were made void.
In , medals were decided by the Bergvall system , games between the medal winning nations are shown. The following is a list of the on-ice officials for the men's gold medal game beginning in and again from when such game was reintroduced.
The editions in which National Hockey League players participated — from to — were primarily officiated by NHL officials.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Olympic field hockey, see Field hockey at the Summer Olympics. Doping at the Olympic Games.
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